As a reminder to new readers, the Clusters Galore technique consists of applying multidimensional scaling on genomic data to convert ~152,000 SNPs into a number of continuous dimensions capturing most of the variation, followed by employment of MCLUST to cluster individuals along these dimensions.
Assyrian, Scandinavian, Greek, Finnish, S_Italian_Sicilian, Ashkenazi, German, Indian, Portuguese, Armenian, Russian, Spanish, British, Irish, Turkish, N_Italian, Balkans, Iranian, North_African, East_African, French, Chinese, Japanese, Polish
In total, 65 clusters were obtained when 10 MDS dimensions were retained.
- Most Greeks and all South Italians/Sicilians continue to fall in the same cluster #4. The fact that the latter population, despite being one of the largest (20 individuals) continues to remain unsplit and distinctive testifies to the fact that it is probably homogeneous and lacks substantial regional inbreeding within it.
- Cluster #2 includes most Germanic individuals and also the Irish
- Cluster #5 is made mostly of Central/North Italians
- Non-Greek Balkan participants fall mostly in cluster #6, which also includes the non-Gypsy admixed reference Romanians
- Project and reference Iberians (Spaniards and Portuguese) continue to be undifferentiated and distinctive, falling in cluster #14; my comments on South Italians/Sicilians also probably apply to them as well.
- There is a trace of structure in the Ashkenazi population, which is split into two clusters. This probably underscores the benefits of large samples in the inference of structure, as 25 Ashkenazi Jews have submitted their results to the Project.
- Project Russians have split affiliations between a circum-Baltic cluster #3 and the Finnish cluster #7.
- North Africans form two new clusters that do no overlap with either reference Mozabites or Egyptians. There is great variety in North Africa, and the 8 people who have submitted their samples are a good start to learning about this region of the world.
- The Chinese are split into two, one part aligning with the "southern" Miaozu and one part aligning with the "northern" Japanese.